B. Romania Context Timeline - Three Vlads
A. There are three Vlads. Vlad I: Ruled briefly 1394-1397; Vlad II Dracul, Order of the Dragon; and his son Vlad III Dracula, also Order of the Dragon, Vlad Tepes, Vlad the Impaler. Explore the turmoil and context of their lives, Ottoman incursions, Hungarian control, In 1410, Sigismund I of Hungary and other illustrious posts (including Holy Roman Emperor later) established the Society of Dragonists, Society of the Dragon, See http://www.donlinke.com/drakula/vlad.htm.
That Don Linke site has been helpful in sorting out names and inconsistencies. Where no attribution is given in this timeline, revert to donlinke.com.
Of interest: the link between Christian fervor and military objectives.
- Vlad II Dracul, joined the religious fervor of the Christian Sigismund of Luxembourg not out of religious upbringing, but out of practicality. Like Olaf of Norway, join the Christians not because of conversion, but because of organization, resources, weaponry. Is that so? See Norway Road Ways. See FN 1 comment here.
- So, out of the constant battling of the 14th Century as the Ottomans advanced, retreated, advanced again, emerges a triangle:
- Religious Christian Sigismund of Luxembourg, fostering the Wallachians and Society of Dragonists, en crusade; and against Muslims, Ottomans under Murad I and Mehmet II.
- New fervor religious Christian Vlad II and Vlad III Dracula; and
- The 'secular humanist' Janos Hunyadi, see that characterization at https://www.britannica.com/biography/Janos-Hunyadi#ref1231916. Not an ideologue, relying on his own leadership abilities to counter the Ottomans, delay, divert prevent the Vlads from compromising with the Ottomans (all the impaling only
- delayed the onset by some 40 years)
1310-1352 -- Rule by Basarab I, see http://www.eliznik.org.uk/RomaniaHistory/wallachian-rulers.htm
1330 -- Romania independent of Hungary (but still a province? vassal?) and under first king, Basarab the Great, identified as an ancestor of Vlad III
1352-1364 -- Rule by Nicolae Alexandru see http://www.eliznik.org.uk/RomaniaHistory/wallachian-rulers.htm
1364-1377 -- Rule by Vladislav I ("Vlalcu")
1377-1383 -- Rule by Radu I
1383-1386 -- Rule by Dan I
1386-1418 -- Rule by Mircea the Old, see See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mircea_I_of_Wallachia. Mrcea had several illegitimate sons, including Vlad II. Was Alexandru Aldea also illegitimate? And Radu II Prasnaglava or Presnaglava, who died in 1427? Were there any legitimate sons. See narrative at http://dracula-transylvania.blogspot.com/2007/02/wallachia-history-from-mircea-old-to.html (Alexandru Aldea identified as illegitimate).
But see 1394-1397 - Start with Vlad I. Interpose the Rule of Vlad I of Wallachia, Vlad the Usurper, Vlad Uzurpaturul, who took the throne from Mircea the old for 3 years, , see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlad_I_of_Wallachia . What is Vlad I's relationship to Vlad II, illegitimate son of Mircea the Old; who became Vlad II when he took Wallachia, see below.
1387-1437 -- Sigismund I King of Hungary and then Holy Roman Emperor.
1397-1418 -- Mircea the Old resumed his rule of Wallachia. What happened to Vlad I? See list of voivodes at http://www.eliznik.org.uk/RomaniaHistory/wallachian-rulers.htm
1408 -- Sigismund of Hungary founded the Society of Dragonists, Order of the Dragon. See http://www.timelineindex.com/content/view/3733. Order was similar to the Crusading orders, the Order of the Dragon, the Society of the Dragonists, here see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_the_Dragon.
Drac in Romanian also means devil.
gSemantics: Drac, dragon. Dracul -- The Dragon. Dracula -- Son of The Dragon.
Sigismund: Pivotal in many places.
- He was the last male in the line of House of Luxembourg, and held many other noble position (King of Hungary and Croatia, Germany, Prince-elector of Brandenburg, Bavaria, Italy etc) see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigismund,_Holy_Roman_Emperor. He had led a crusade, continued that effort closer to home, and developed a system of pledging church and other property to raise money for his ventures, see Money and Finance in Central Europe during the Later Middle Ages, by Roman Zaoral 2016 p.83 et al., transferring his own property rights to another's use of it. Extent of Hungary's hegemomony: Sigismund lived at the time in Buda, now Montenegro. See Money and Finance at p. 99. Alt-History has a good time with his finances and other failures, as they see it, see http://althistory.wikia.com/wiki/Sigismund_I_of_Luxembourg_(The_Kalmar_Union)
1410 -- Sigismund I of Hungary and Luxembourg becomes Holy Roman Emperor. http://www.donlinke.com/drakula/vlad.htm. This timelineL Sigismund as HRE 1433-1437, see http://www.timelineindex.com/content/view/3733
Some time -- [Vlad I lived, known only through the designation of Vlad II (Vlad II Dracul). Son Vlad III Dracula. But Vlad
1418 -1420 -- Rule by Mihail I. See http://www.eliznik.org.uk/RomaniaHistory/wallachian-rulers.htm. See also factional split. 1. Descendants of Mircea, vs. 2. another faction led by "Dan" or "the Danesti". This Danesti is different from the early tribe known as the Dacians from Roman times, see https://www.ancient.eu/dacia/
1420-1431-- Rule by Dan II; then interpose briefly in 1421 Radu II "Presnaglava". In a google translator, 'presnaglava' shows as Slovenian, and means "We are overwhelming." Then back to Dan II. Then in summer 1423 back to Radu II Presnaglava, Then back and forth between the two until 1431. See http://www.eliznik.org.uk/RomaniaHistory/wallachian-rulers.htm
- Mircea had an illegitimate son, Vlad, father of Vlad Tepes, Vlad father later Vlad II. At some point, Mircea sent his illegitimate son Vlad to the Court King Sigismund of Hungary, see Events that Formed the Modern World eds. Thackeray and Finding 2012. Vlad became a member of the Order of the Dragon founded by Charles IV of Luxembourg, a Christian society dedicated to the defeat of the Ottomans -- thus the name Vlad Dracul.
1431 -- King Sigismnud installed Prince Vlad Dracul as Military Governor of Transylvania, (was Transylvania still a vassal of Hungary? ) Meanwhile, Wallachia to the south was ruled by a Danesti Prince, Alexandru, some disagreement on identity.
1431-1436 -- Rule in Wallachia by Alexandru I Aldea. http://www.eliznik.org.uk/RomaniaHistory/wallachian-rulers.htm.
Was this a brother of Vlad II? See And that Vlad III's father's brother was Alexander Andeu. See kishiniev site. Aldea, Andeu, not sure.
Wallachia at time was pulled in two directions -- a vassal of Hungary to the northeast, as well as dominated by Ottomans, Turks, to the south, see Events that Formed the Modern World . Vlad Dracul - which to honor, self and aspirations, or loyalty to Hungary?
1431 -- Second Son. Vlad Dracul has second son, Vladul' (Vlad Dracula, later Tepes, or the Impaler). See http://www.timelineindex.com/content/view/3733. Name Vladul' - see http://www.kishiniov.eu/en/childhood-youth-vlad-impaler-dracula/
1436-1442 -- Rule by Vlad Dracul, Vlad the Devil see http://www.eliznik.org.uk/RomaniaHistory/wallachian-rulers.htm
- Vlad Dracul's half brother Alexander I Aldea, legitimate son (or illegitimate also, but elder?) of Mircea the Old, had a superior claim and ruled Wallachia util his death. Issue: Did Alexander I Aldea die naturally, or was he killed by Vlad Dracul? see kishiniov) cc
- Vlad Dracul was second tier but was displeased that Alexander bowed to the Sultan Murad II. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlad_II_Dracula
-- Prince Vlad Dracul gathers supporters and invades Wallachia, and acording to this acount, kills
his brother Alexandru Aldea and becomes Vlad II. See also http://www.kishiniov.eu/en/childhood-youth-vlad-impaler-dracula/
1439 -- Third son. Vlad Dracul has third son, Radu. Radu the Handsome, see Events. and http://www.kishiniov.eu/en/childhood-youth-vlad-impaler-dracula/
- Janos Hunyadi: See castle at Hunedoara, Romania, in excellent condition, a factory next door, packed area of industrialization, which perhaps prevented its destruction. See https://romaniaroadwaysvladtepes.blogspot.com/2006/08/hunedoara-johan-hunyadi-vlad.html
1442 -- March-summer -- Rule by Mircea (which?)
Vlad Dracul turned to the Ottomans (Sultan Murat II) for help in keeping his throne in Wallachia, see Events, Then, to anchor his ongoing loyalty to the Ottomans, Vlad Dracul is required to leave his two younger sons, Vlad and Radu, like hostages, at the Ottoman court at Adrianople, see Events, Kishiniov.
Vlad I is captured in the Turkish city of Edirne (northwest from Istanbul now) by Murad.
Imprisoned at Gallipoli, see http://www.kishiniov.eu/en/childhood-youth-vlad-impaler-dracula/
Hunyadi invades Wallachia. Made the cousin of Vlad, Basarab II, voivode. Hunyadi begins a 1442-1443 engagement against Ottomans (the "Long Campaign"), with help of Venice and the Papacy, see https://www.britannica.com/biography/Janos-Hunyadi#ref1231916).
- Inter-group involvements. Janos Hunyadi: among the first rulers to maintain a standing army rather than rely on feudal levies. Hired Czechs, Serbs, veterans. See site. Crossed the Danube, into Serbia (Sofia is now Bulgaria) to fortified Turkish garrisons. Got to the Balkans, were forced back by winter weather, and regrouped in Buda, Montenegro.
1443-1447 -- Rule by Vlad Dracul.
- Vlad Dracul is released, but has to leave his 2 younger sons (Vlad II and Radu) as hostage of the Ottomans. Vlad I regained Wallachia, with Ottoman support (what happened to Basarab II?). See http://www.kishiniov.eu/en/childhood-youth-vlad-impaler-dracula/
- Elder son: Mircea -- was he written off as beyond protection? What?
1443-1447 --Vlad Dracul rules Wallachia.
- Crusade of Varna: John Hunyadi sends 4000 horsemen against Ottomans. Vlad I also sent his sother son Mircea, see kishiniov. Murad II had sued for peace, but Hunyadi's forces were unable to prevent resurgence, and Murad prevailed at Varna, ultimately Hunyadi barely escaped, see https://www.britannica.com/biography/Janos-Hunyadi#ref1231916
1445 -- Vlad I captures Giurgiu, Ottoman fortress
The Turkish Emperor (Sultan?) sent Vlad III to rule in Wallachia. See kishiniov.
The First Son: Then comes the fate of Vlad II's elder son, Mircea, if this is the right chronology. Mircea was captured, blinded and buried alive at Targoviste. By whom? The kishiniov article continues later: that it was Vlad III himself who had bis elder brother buried alive.
1448-1456 -- Rule by Vladislav II, a "distant cousin", who unseated Vlad III Dracula, and rules Wallachia, see kishiniov. Vlad Dracul fled to Moldova, to an uncle Bogdan ruling there.
1451 -- Vlad Dracul musters supporters and leaves Moldova, to try to retake Wallachia. kishiniov. Senators at Brasov were asked by Vladislav, however, to send Vlad Dracul back to Moldova, but apparently they did not do so, angering Vladislav. Vladislav sent two Hungarian noblemen, assassins, to do the deed on Vlad while in Geoagiu. [Is that the same Ottoman fortress, the Giurgiu ,that Vlad II captured? see above]
Vlad III needed support, and went, oh no, to John Hunyadi's court for it. What else could he do? Yet, this, was the court of the killer of his father Vlad II see kishiniov. Many pulls.
1456-1462 -- Vlad III rules Wallachia. Took it with help of Hungarians.
1458 -- Hunyadi died during an epidemic. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Janos-Hunyadi#ref1231916
1458-1490 -- Son Matthias I becomes king, Mathias Corvinus. See Kingdom of Hungary at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Hungary_(1301%E2%80%931526). King of Croatia and Hungary, illustrious soldier, statesman, philosopher. The name "corvinus" comes from the raven on his shield coat of arms. See http://www.nndb.com/people/385/000096097/. The city of Buda recurs, now in Montenegro and a resort area.
1462 -- Vlad III is forced off his mountain castle eyrie, Poinari Citadel in the Carpathians. We were told that his wife, fearing capture by the Ottomans, flung herself off the ramparts and down to the gorge of the Arges River below. See it at http://touristinromania.net/what-to-visit-romania/poenari-castle-fortress-vlad-impaler-incredible-landscape-piece-history-bloody-legend/. It is dicey to park your car, even with the little we carry in the little trunk, down in the parking lot and know it will be hours before you return. Trust, grasshopper, trust. We were fine. The castle began construction under (says site) the Black King. Is that Radu the Black, Radu Negru in 1290, see above. Wiki says he was from the Fagaras region, but also attributes the founding not to Radu but to a Basarab, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foundation_of_Wallachia The road by the castle entry is the Transfagarasan Pass or Transfagarasan Road. Check before starting out to see it is open (snows).
Vlad fled through a village named Arefu (that still honors him) (go visit; there is a small guesthouse) and back to the court of, not John Hunyadi any more, but his son ruling Mathias Corvinus; who imprisoned him. Is this the castle at Hunedoara?
1462-1474 -- Vlad imprisoned, but rehabilitating apparently. He converted to Catholicism instead of Orthodoxy. Would that matter to Mathias? Was the Mathias Corvinus castle still at Hunedoara?
1462-1473 -- Rule by Radu the Handsome, Radu cel Frumos, younger brother of Vlad.
1473-1476 -- Rule alternates between Radu the Handsome and Basarab cel Batrin Laiota, Basarab the Old, battle, battle. See http://www.eliznik.org.uk/RomaniaHistory/wallachian-rulers.htm. Then Radu dies, and Basarab the Old rules.
1476 -- Vlad III Dracula again invades, with a mixed force, his supporters and some of Basarab. Death of Vlad III Dracula, facing an overwhelming Ottoman force near Bucharest, and with his own forces deserting to Transylvania, and Basarab's also falling away. Many conflicting reports as to which side killed Vlad III, his own, Basarab's, or the Ottomans. The Ottomans got the body, decapitated it, and here stories again vary: Either the head was taken to Sultan Mehmet in Constantinople; and the body remained; to be taken later by friendly forces into Bulgaria, to a monastery; and the body buried at the monastery at Snagov near Bucharest (now an island, was it then?). But there was digging at Snagov, at the doorway at least (why not at the altar?) and the bones found were not human (chicken, we were told). Is he elsewhere there? The altar area has a memorial.
- Novel: The Historian, by Elizabeth Kostova 2005, re Tale of Stefan the Wanderer: Vlad's men brought the body to Snagov; body (headless) buried at front of altar; remained there; then secretly taken from Snagov to Constantinople, and from there to Sveti Georgi Monastery in Bulgaria. Was the "treasure" to reunite head and body, some such, follow the route, is this a pilgrimage story, bottom line is no burial place for Vlad, head or body or both, ever found. Read The Historian chapter 59 online at http://www.onlinebookster.com/reading/the-historian-745/81585
- See other views, https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/snagov-monastery
1477-1481 -- Rule of Basarab the Younger, Basarab cel Tinar
1481 -- Rule by Mircea (which?)
See eliznik site for successive rulers through 1859. Follow the Kingdom of Hungary at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Hungary_(1301%E2%80%931526)
Overviews and maps continue at Pinterest.
Religious fervor does not always underlie alliances with religious groups. Look first, before expecting to find evidence of ideological conversion, to what is offered under the table:, or above it -- resources, organization, ready fighting bodies, weaponry in exchange for live bodies worshipping (and paying) as required. The prospect of such advantage in seeking or retaining power against an enemy may well stir moral (?) attitudes otherwise happily dormant. Just as with the conversion of Scandinavia to Christianity, Olaf and others first found in their visits to the Holy Roman Empire vast resources, skills in warfare, support for the aspirations of the ruler ito overcome rivals in exchange for ready forced conversion, that were irresistible. See Conversion Among the Germanic Peoples
by Carole M. Cusack 1998, for example, esp. p.3: conversion just happening to coincide with expansion, Christian kingship bringing a "sacral" justification to the governance role.
Now see the Ottoman advances in the 14th-15th centuries -- alliance with the Holy Roman Empire was seen as a ready means to win affected not just those on the front lines from time to time, but also remote areas -- like Luxembourg -- where Sigismund founded the Order of the Dragon in 1410, the Society of Dragonists, of which Vlad II Dracul and Vlad III Dracula (who wasn't a vampire at all), became spearheads.